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5600 BC to BC

Neolithic era (5200 BC - 4100 BC)

Earliest settlers arrive on Malta from Sicily, as farmers, who grew barley, wheat, and leguminous plants, and raised pigs, cattle, sheep and goats.

Ghar Dalam phase.

The fauna of the Maltese Islands includes deer, hippopotami and dwarf elephants, believed to be remnants from an earlier age, when Malta formed part of a land-bridge that connected Europe with the African continent.

4850 BC: Development of a village settlement at Skorba.

4400 BC to 4100 BC: Red Skorba phase; baked clay figurines and statuettes

The Temple Culture (4100 BC - 3000 BC)
4100 BCE: A new wave of immigration to Malta; introduction of pear-shaped ceramic artefacts.

4100 BC to 3800 BC: Construction of the Xaghra Stone Circle on the Island of Gozo.

3600 BC: Construction of the Ggantija megalithic temple complex on the Island of Gozo.

3600 BC to 3000 BC: Construction of Ta' Hagrat, Kordin III, Skorba and Tas-Silg. megalithic temples.

3600 BC to 2500 BC: Construction of the Mnajdra and ? Qim temple complexes.

3250 BC to 3000 BC: Construction of the Tarxien Temples.

3000 BC: Earliest evidence of cremation; some of the older megalithic temples are converted into necropoli.

Bronze Age / Iron Age (2500 BC - 700 BC)
2500 BCE: Excavation of the Hypogeum of Hal-Saflieni, an underground sanctuary and necropolis.

2500 BCE: Construction of Borg. in-Nadur temple; subsequently developed into a Bronze Age village.

about 1000 BCE:
The colonisation of the Maltese Islands by the Phoenicians begins.
Earliest evidence of commerce and increased contacts with surrounding Mediterranean cultures.

about 720 BCE: A Greek colony is founded on Malta.

Punic / Roman period (700 BC - 395 AD)
700 BC to 200 BC: A Punic temple, dedicated to the mother goddess Astarte, is built over the remains of the Tas-Silg. megalithic temples.

539 BC: Cyrus the Great, founder of the Persian Empire, conquers Phoenicia.

480 BC: The islands come under the control of Carthage, a former Phoenician colony, and rapidly develop into a Carthaginian naval base.

264 BC-241 BC: First Punic War.

200 BC to 300: A Roman temple, dedicated to the goddess Hera, is built over the remains of the Tas-Silg. megalithic temples.

221 BC to 202 BC: Second Punic War.

218 BC:
Invasion of Malta by Titus Sempronius Longus.
Malta is incorporated into the Roman Republic, within the province of Sicily.
Beginnings of the Maltese textile industry.

150 BC to 146 BC: Third Punic War.